Antibiotics A to Z

Use the Antibiotic Selector to quickly search or browse for the best antibiotic based on your application. The selector tool will allow you to find antibiotics based on specific spectrum of activity and/or mechanism of action. Also take advantage of useful information found on each antibiotic′s detail page such as solubility, solution stability, and working concentration.
Antibiotics are universally used within life sciences to eliminate contamination and for study of the mechanisms used by bacteria and other cells to combat resistance, with the goal of developing new antibacterial and antineoplastic compounds.Use the associated pages to easily navigate among our selection of antibiotics and antimicrobials based on name. Products are suitable for applications like cell culture, gene regulation and expression, analytical reference standards, plasmid selection, plant tissue culture, or research, as indicated.

Discovery and Use of Antibiotics

The efficacy of natural antibiotics found in molds and plants had been known for centuries before the compounds themselves were isolated. Scientists began to have success identifying the active biochemicals found in antibacterial molds in 1928, with the rediscovery of penicillin by Fleming, identification of the chemical structure by Hodgkin, and subsequent synthesis by Chain, Heatley, and Florey, which led to commercial production of penicillin in the mid 1940s. Since then, researchers have not only discovered numerous natural antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral compounds, but also determined the critical cell mechanisms that are inhibited or blocked by these compounds. The understanding of these cellular activities has allowed for the development of subsequent generations of semisynthetic and synthetic antibiotics.

Antibiotics in Health Research

The greatest impact of the identification and manufacture of antibiotics has clearly been in the area of human health. Scientists have been able to adapt these compounds for use in research and production applications to eliminate undesired bacteria, especially in cell culture.

Antibiotic Resistance

Some bacterial strains have evolved to develop resistance to specific antibiotics by enzymatic modification or degradation of the antibiotic, by modification of the drug target, or by exportation of the antibiotic through membrane efflux pumps. Geneticists have been able to exploit this trait by locating gene sequences that confer resistance and subsequently incorporating the resistance sequence into a plasmid that allows antibiotic selection of microorganisms transformed for recombinant protein expression.